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Gut With Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes Bacteria

Intestine with Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes micro organism. Credit score: © CMFI/Leon Kokkoliadis

A Low-Calorie Food plan Alters the Intestine Microbiome and Delays Immune Growing old

A calorie-reduced weight-reduction plan can not solely delay the event of metabolic ailments, but additionally has a optimistic impact on the immune system. Researchers have now proven for the primary time that this impact is led to by an altered intestine microbiome, which slows down the deterioration of the immune system in previous age (immune senescence). The analysis research has been printed within the journal Microbiome.

Intestine microbiome

The intestine microbiome is the time period used to explain the totality of all microorganisms and intestinal micro organism in our digestive tract. Amongst different issues, it influences the immune system and the metabolism of its host.

Round 2 billion individuals worldwide are obese. Weight problems will increase the danger of creating hypertension, coronary heart assault or kind 2 diabetes mellitus. It might probably additionally trigger irritation within the physique that weakens the immune system by means of an accumulation of particular reminiscence T and B cells. This course of is known as immune senescence, an age-related change within the immune system.

In overweight individuals, a low-calorie weight-reduction plan can delay the event of metabolic diseases corresponding to kind 2 diabetes. Moreover, such a weight-reduction plan is helpful to the immune system. Nevertheless, it’s unclear precisely how the optimistic results are led to and what perform the intestine microbiota performs on this course of. Researchers have now explored the relationships between calorie-reduced diets, the microbiome, metabolism, and the immune system in a brand new research.

Calorie-reduced weight-reduction plan alters the intestine microbiome

For this goal, they first analyzed how a really low-calorie weight-reduction plan (800 kcal/day for 8 weeks) affected the intestine microbiome of an overweight lady. Within the subsequent step, the researchers transplanted the intestine microbiota earlier than and after the weight-reduction plan intervention into germ-free mice to determine a gnotobiotic mouse mannequin. “On this approach, we had been capable of decide the only results of the diet-shaped intestine microbiome on metabolism and the immune system,” stated Reiner Jumpertz-von Schwartzenberg, final creator of the research and a scientist on the Institute of Diabetes Analysis and Metabolic Illnesses of Helmholtz Munich on the College of Tübingen, a associate of the German Heart for Diabetes Analysis (DZD). He led the research along with Hans-Dieter Volk and Joachim Spranger of Charité.

Food plan-altered intestine microbiome improves metabolism and delays immune senescence

By transplanting the diet-altered microbiota, glucose metabolism improved and fats deposition decreased. As well as, mass cytometry confirmed that the extent of particular reminiscence T and B cells was additionally decreased. “This means delayed immune senescence,” stated Julia Sbierski-Form, first creator of the research.

“These findings counsel that the optimistic results of a low-calorie weight-reduction plan on metabolism and the immune system are mediated by way of the intestine microbiome,” Sbierski-Form stated. Nevertheless, the authors of the research emphasize that the investigation has up to now solely been performed with the microbiome of 1 individual and that the experiments should be repeated with further topics to verify the outcomes. The brand new findings is also attention-grabbing for medical observe in the long run. “An improved understanding of the advanced interaction between weight-reduction plan, the microbiome, and the immune system might set the stage for the event of latest microbiome-based therapeutic avenues to deal with metabolic and immune ailments,” stated Jumpertz-von Schwartzenberg.

Reference: “Results of caloric restriction on the intestine microbiome are linked with immune senescence” by Julia Sbierski-Form, Sophia Grenkowitz, Stephan Schlickeiser, Arvid Sandforth, Marie Friedrich, Désirée Kunkel, Rainer Glauben, Sebastian Brachs, Knut Mai, Andrea Thürmer, Aleksandar Radonic, Oliver Drechsel, Peter J. Turnbaugh, Jordan E. Bisanz, Hans-Dieter Volk, Joachim Spranger and Reiner Jumpertz von Schwartzenberg, 4 April 2022, Microbiome.
DOI: 10.1186/s40168-022-01249-4

Concerning the research:

The purpose of the research was to find out the interactions between a calorie-restricted weight-reduction plan, microbiome and the immune system. To this finish, a human dietary intervention trial was mixed with gnotobiotic experiments during which immunophenotyping was decided by multidimensional single cell mass cytometry. The next institutes and analysis services had been concerned:

  • German Heart for Diabetes Analysis (DZD)
  • Institute of Diabetes Analysis and Metabolic Illnesses (IDM) of Helmholtz Munich on the College of Tübingen
  • Division of Inner Drugs IV (Director: Prof. Andreas Birkenfeld), Tübingen College Hospital
  • Cluster of Excellence EXC 2124 “Controlling Microbes to Battle Infections” (CMFI), College of Tübingen
  • Institute of Medical Immunology, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, company member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt College of Berlin
  • Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, company member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt College of Berlin
  • Berlin Institute of Well being at Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Circulate & Mass Cytometry Core Facility, Berlin

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